Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of neurodegenerative disease. Its typical pathology consists of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular tau neurofibrillary tangles. Mutations in the APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 genes increase Aβ production and aggregation, and thus cause early onset or familial AD. Even with this strong genetic evidence, recent studies support AD to result from complex etiological alterations. Among them, aging is the strongest risk factor for the vast majority of AD cases: Sporadic late onset AD (LOAD). Accumulation of DNA damage is a well-established aging factor. In this regard, a large amount of evidence reveals DNA damage as a critical pathological cause of AD. Clinically, DNA damage is accumulated in brains of AD patients. Genetically, defects in DNA damage repair resulted from mutations in the BRAC1 and other DNA damage repair genes occur in AD brain and facilitate the pathogenesis. Abnormalities in DNA damage repair can be used as diagnostic biomarkers for AD. In this review, we discuss the association, the causative potential, and the biomarker values of DNA damage in AD pathogenesis.