Postoperative pain control following minimally invasive correction of pectus excavatum in pediatric patients: A systematic review
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PURPOSE: Surgery for pectus excavatum is associated with significant postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to summarize the current literature regarding postoperative pain control for pediatric patients undergoing minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE). METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing methods of pain control in pediatric patients undergoing MIRPE was conducted. Studies were restricted to the English language. RESULTS: After screening 1304 references, 9 randomized control trials (RCTs) enrolling 485 patients were included. The average age was 11.9 years (±3.1). Pain scores were decreased with ropivacaine compared to bupivacaine-based epidurals. In studies comparing ketamine to opioid based patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA) pumps, the results were variable. Intercostal and paravertebral nerve blocks had decreased pain scores in 75% of the studies compared to opioid-based PCA. Opioid consumption was decreased in 50% of the trials assessing ketamine-based infusions and 75% of the studies comparing intercostal and paravertebral nerve blocks. Nausea was decreased in several of the ketamine-based infusion and intercostal and paravertebral nerve block studies. CONCLUSION: Ketamine-including infusions or paravertebral and intercostal nerve blocks may represent superior methods of postoperative pain control for MIRPE. Further work is needed to confirm results. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2A .
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