How Useful Is the Flexion-Adduction-Internal Rotation Test for Diagnosing Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Systematic Review.
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OBJECTIVE: Clinicians use the flexion, adduction, and internal rotation (FADIR) test in the diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, the diagnostic utility of this test remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to determine the utility of the FADIR test in diagnosing FAI. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched using relevant key terms and study screening was performed in duplicate. Patient demographics, diagnostic imaging, and summary measures (eg sensitivity, specificity, etc.) of the FADIR test in patients with FAI were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: Eight studies of levels III (87.5%) and IV (12.5%) evidence were included. Four hundred fifty-two patients (622 hips) with a mean age of 27.0 ± 9.0 were examined. Alpha (75.1%) and/or center-edge (26.8%) angles were used to diagnose hips with FAI. X-ray (78.9%), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (16.2%), and computed tomography (CT) (4.8%) were used to confirm the diagnosis of FAI. The sensitivity when confirmed by x-ray, MRI, or CT was 0.08 to 1, 0.33 to 1 and 0.90, respectively. The specificity when confirmed by x-ray and MRI was 0.11 and 1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall utility of the FADIR test in diagnosing FAI remains unclear given its moderate sensitivity and specificity, it may be a useful screening tool for FAI because of its low risk. Clinicians should consider the variability in sensitivity and specificity values reported and the low quality of literature available. Future studies should use large sample sizes and consistent radiographic measurements to better understand the usefulness of this physical examination maneuver in diagnosing FAI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, Systematic Review of Level III and IV studies.
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