Important Food Sources of Fructose‐Containing Sugars and Incident Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Dose‐Response Meta‐Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
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Background Sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with hypertension. We assessed the relation of important food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident hypertension using a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods and Results We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane (through December week 2, 2018) for eligible studies. For each food source, natural log-transformed risk ratios (RRs) for incident hypertension were pooled using pair-wise meta-analysis and linear and nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses. Certainty in our evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. We identified 26 reports, including 15 prospective cohorts (930 677 participants; 363 459 cases). Sugar-sweetened beverages showed harmful (RRper-355-mL, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.08, 1.12]) whereas fruit (RRper-240-g, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.96, 0.99]) and yogurt showed protective associations (RRper-125-g, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.94, 0.97]) with incident hypertension throughout the dose range. One hundred percent fruit juice showed a protective association only at moderate doses (RRat-100-mL, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.94, 0.99]). The pair-wise protective association of dairy desserts was not supported by linear dose-response analysis. Fruit drinks or sweet snacks were not associated with hypertension. Certainty of the evidence was "low" for sugar-sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice, fruit, and yogurt and "very low" for fruit drinks, sweet snacks, and dairy desserts. Conclusions The harmful association between sugar-sweetened beverages and hypertension does not extend to other important food sources of fructose-containing sugars. Further research is needed to improve our estimates and better understand the dose-response relationship between food sources of fructose-containing sugars and hypertension. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT02702375.
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