Serotonin and 5-HT3 receptors sensitize human skin cells to direct irradiation cell death but not to soluble radiation-induced bystander signals
- Additional Document Info
- View All
Ionizing radiation (IR) is an environmental carcinogen and the biological damages it elicits are mechanistically distinct between high and low doses. Non-targeted effects occurring in nonirradiated cells such as the radiation-induced bystander effect predominate at low doses of IR. However, the role of non-targeted effects in environmental radiation protection is often overlooked because the governing mechanisms are complex and multifactorial. An improved understanding of the signaling molecules and their capacity to sensitize specific cell types are essential in establishing environmental IR risks. In particular, serotonin (5-HT) has been identified to exacerbate both direct irradiation and bystander-induced cell death (CD) in certain cell types, although not all cell types are responsive to 5-HT in this respect. In this study, we further characterize the role of 5-HT and 5-HT receptors (5-HTR) in the amplification of CD following IR exposure in human keratinocytes. We examined the survival of HaCaT cells treated with 5-HT and the 5-HTR antagonists ketanserin (5-HT2A) and ondansetron (5-HT3) following exposure to direct IR and irradiated cell condition medium (ICCM). Nonirradiated cell survival was consistent with the vehicle control among 5-HT concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 100 μM. Significant 5-HT concentration-dependent increases in CD occurred following direct IR exposure. Nonirradiated ICCM-recipient CD was not altered by 5-HT (0.001-100 μM) when present during donor cell irradiation among all IR doses. Increases in direct irradiation CD evoked by 5-HT were significantly attenuated by ondansetron, blocking the effect of 5-HT, whereas ketanserin did not alter CD. Western blotting of these target 5-HTRs revealed protein expression of the 5-HT3 receptor, while the 5-HT2A receptor was not detected. We have demonstrated a definitive role for 5-HT in the exacerbation of CD following direct IR exposure and identified the 5-HT3 receptor as a potential target for ameliorating radiation damage in keratinocytes.
has subject area