Chronic kidney disease and valvular heart disease: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for valvular heart disease (VHD). Mitral annular and aortic valve calcifications are highly prevalent in CKD patients and commonly lead to valvular stenosis and regurgitation, as well as complications including conduction system abnormalities and endocarditis. VHD, especially mitral regurgitation and aortic stenosis, is associated with significantly reduced survival among CKD patients. Knowledge related to VHD in the general population is not always applicable to CKD patients because the pathophysiology may be different, and CKD patients have a high prevalence of comorbid conditions and elevated risk for periprocedural complications and mortality. This Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) review of CKD and VHD seeks to improve understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of VHD in CKD by summarizing knowledge gaps, areas of controversy, and priorities for research.
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