- Because of its substantial personal social and economic costs, workforce participation among individuals with rheumatic diseases has received considerable research attention. This chapter reviews non-pharmacological employment interventions for people with rheumatic diseases, focussing on the comprehensiveness of interventions, whether they have been targeted to those groups identified as most at risk, and intervention outcomes and effectiveness. Findings highlight that early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases may not be enough to keep individuals employed and that comprehensive work interventions may have positive psychological effects, as well as result in increased work participation. However, we lack data addressing the optimum time to intervene and subgroup analyses to determine whether some groups are at increased risk for poor work outcomes. Consistent inclusion of behavioural and psychological outcomes to evaluate interventions and compare studies is also needed, along with cost-benefit studies, to determine the long-term feasibility of work interventions.