Interventions to Improve Metabolic Risk Screening Among Adult Patients Taking Antipsychotic Medication: A Systematic Review
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OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic use is associated with elevated cardiometabolic risk. Guidelines for metabolic risk screening of individuals taking antipsychotics have been issued, but with little uptake into clinical practice. This review systematically assessed interventions that address this guideline-to-practice gap and described their quality, improvement strategies, and effect on screening rates. METHODS: Studies of interventions that addressed metabolic risk screening of adult patients taking antipsychotics, published from inception to July 2018, were selected from MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane Reviews databases. Information was extracted on study characteristics; improvement strategies at the provider, patient, and system levels; and screening rates in the intervention and comparison groups. RESULTS: The review included 30 complex interventions that used between one and nine unique improvement strategies. Social influence to shift provider and health organization culture to encourage metabolic risk screening was a common strategy, as were clinical prompts and monitoring tools to capture provider attention. Most studies were deemed at high risk of bias. Relative to comparison groups, the interventions were associated with an increase in median screening rates for glucose (28% to 65%), lipids (22% to 61%), weight (19% to 67%), and blood pressure (22% to 80%). CONCLUSIONS: This knowledge synthesis points to shortcomings of current interventions to improve antipsychotic metabolic risk screening, both in quality and in outcomes. Findings may be used to inform the design of future programs. Additional interventions are needed to address the current guideline-to-practice gap, in which approximately one-third of patients are unscreened for metabolic risk.
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