Extended thromboprophylaxis following colorectal surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a comprehensive systematic clinical review
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AIM: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) following major abdominal surgery. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and not fully understood. A combination of pathophysiology, patient and surgical risk factors increase the risk of postoperative VTE in these patients. Despite being at increased risk, IBD patients are not regularly prescribed extended pharmacological thromboprophylaxis following colorectal surgery. Currently, there is a paucity of evidence-based guidelines. Thus, the aim of this review is to evaluate the role of extended pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in IBD patients undergoing colorectal surgery. METHOD: A search of Ovid Medline, EMBASE and PubMed databases was performed. A qualitative analysis was performed using 10 clinical questions developed by colorectal surgeons and a thrombosis haematologist. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was utilized to assess the quality of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 1229 studies were identified, 38 of which met the final inclusion criteria (37 retrospective, one case-control). Rates of postoperative VTE ranged between 0.6% and 8.9%. Patient-specific risk factors for postoperative VTE included ulcerative colitis, increased age and obesity. Surgery-specific risk factors for postoperative VTE included open surgery, emergent surgery and ileostomy creation. Patients with IBD were more frequently at increased risk in the included studies for postoperative VTE than patients with colorectal cancer. The risk of bias assessment demonstrated low risk of bias in patient selection and comparability, with variable risk of bias in reported outcomes. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of evidence regarding the use of extended pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in patients with IBD following colorectal surgery. As these patients are at heightened risk of postoperative VTE, future study and consideration of the use of extended pharmacological thromboprophylaxis is warranted.
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