Preserving the Efficacy of Glycopeptide Antibiotics during Nanoencapsulation in Liposomes
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Liposome nanovesicles are attractive vehicles for encapsulation and localized delivery of antibiotics. Most liposomal batch preparation processes involve numerous freeze-thaw cycles and heating or sonication steps, all of which can potentially deactivate or degrade antibiotics. We investigated the extent of antibiotic deactivation during various liposomal preparation methods using two glycopeptide antibiotics clinically administered for Staphylococcus infections, namely, vancomycin hydrochloride and teicoplanin. Both antibiotics, in the nonencapsulated state, were found to be highly sensitive to the freeze-thaw/sonication; vancomycin completely lost efficacy after only three cycles of freeze-thaw, and teicoplanin lost efficacy after 20 min of sonication. When the antibiotics were encapsulated in liposomes, vancomycin retained full potency against bacterial cultures of Staphylococcus aureus but encapsulated teicoplanin suffered a decrease in activity. Differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry suggest that liposomes have a protective effect on the encapsulated antibiotic, the extent of which was found to differ on the basis of the processing conditions.