The Two-Eyed Seeing approach has been advocated for use in research with Indigenous people as it creates a space for Western and Indigenous ways of knowing to come together using the best of both worldviews to aid understanding and solve problems. Foundational literature presents its use as a promising way to promote ethical exchanges between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, but the practical application of its concepts to research remains vague.
This integrative review, using the Whittemore and Knafl approach, describes the state of the literature pertaining to the interpretation and application of Two-Eyed Seeing. Following a search of the literature, 37 articles were selected for inclusion, and primary studies ( n = 11) were critiqued for quality. Data were extracted, analyzed, and synthesized into themes.
Three themes were compiled from the literature including (a) defining characteristics of Two-Eyed Seeing, (b) suggested attributes of those engaging with Two-Eyed Seeing, and (c) the application of Two-Eyed Seeing in research.
This review demonstrates inconsistencies in how to date researchers have interpreted and applied Two-Eyed Seeing in research with Indigenous people. The collection of key attributes of researchers and application procedures to research discussed in this review present a new standard for the application of Two-Eyed Seeing to research with Indigenous people. Researchers using Two-Eyed Seeing should thoroughly describe their application of its concepts to promote its maturation into a well-defined framework for research with Indigenous people.