Complement factor and T‐cell interactions during alloimmune inflammation in transplantation
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Complement factor and T-cell signaling during an effective alloimmune response plays a key role in transplant-associated injury, which leads to the progression of chronic rejection (CR). During an alloimmune response, activated complement factors (C3a and C5a) bind to their corresponding receptors (C3aR and C5aR) on a number of lymphocytes, including T-regulatory cells (Tregs), and these cell-molecular interactions have been vital to modulate an effective immune response to/from Th1-effector cell and Treg activities, which result in massive inflammation, microvascular impairments, and fibrotic remodeling. Involvement of the complement-mediated cell signaling during transplantation signifies a crucial role of complement components as a key therapeutic switch to regulate ongoing inflammatory state, and further to avoid the progression of CR of the transplanted organ. This review highlights the role of complement-T cell interactions, and how these interactions shunt the effector immune response during alloimmune inflammation in transplantation, which could be a novel therapeutic tool to protect a transplanted organ and avoid progression of CR.
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