Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery: diagnosis and management
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Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is due to myocardial ischaemia (i.e. supply-demand mismatch or thrombus) and is associated with an increased risk of mortality and major vascular complications at 30 days and up to 2 years after non-cardiac surgery. The diagnostic criteria for MINS includes an elevated post-operative troponin measurement judged as resulting from myocardial ischaemia (i.e. no evidence of a non-ischaemic aetiology), during or within 30 days after non-cardiac surgery, and without the requirement of an ischaemic feature (e.g. ischaemic symptom, ischaemic electrocardiography finding). For patients with MINS who are not at high risk of bleeding, physicians should consider initiating dabigatran 110 mg twice daily and low-dose aspirin. Physicians should also consider initiating statin therapy in patients with MINS. Most MINS patients should only be referred to cardiac catheterization if they demonstrate recurrent instability (e.g. cardiac ischaemia, heart failure). Patients ≥65 years of age or with known atherosclerotic disease should have troponin measurements on days 1, 2, and 3 after surgery while the patient is in hospital to avoid missing >90% of MINS and the opportunity to initiate secondary prophylactic measures and follow-up.
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