Noninvasive Vehicle-to-Load Energy Management Strategy to Prevent Li-Ion Batteries Premature Degradation Journal Articles uri icon

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  • Today, electric vehicles available in the market aspire to offer different connections to the end user, for instance, Vehicle to Grid (V2G), Vehicle to Building (V2B), Vehicle to Home (V2H), Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V), and Vehicle to Load (V2L), among others. Notwithstanding these versatility options toward the development of a sustainable society, the additional degradation of the energy storage systems once those operate in extra discharge modes is inevitable. Therefore, in this paper, an energy management strategy (EMS) which operates autonomously and noninvasively as an additional layer to the battery management system (BMS) is proposed. The EMS limits the current flow avoiding high and low temperatures, low state of charge (SoC), high deep of discharge (DoD), noncentered DoD around an optimal SoC point, and high charge and discharge rates. The proposed EMS is evaluated by long-term simulations with a Li-Ion battery degradation model and realistic weather conditions, during standard driving cycles including the V2L operation. The effectiveness and simplicity of tuning of the proposed EMS allow estimating and increasing the life expectancy of the Li-Ion battery bank, by limiting the energy used for V2L operation.


  • Rodríguez-Licea, Martín-Antonio
  • Perez-Pinal, Francisco
  • Soriano-Sánchez, Allan-Giovanni
  • Vázquez-López, José-Antonio

publication date

  • May 23, 2019