Reporting Outcomes and Outcome Measures in Open Rhinoplasty: A Systematic Review
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BACKGROUND: Comparative studies have shown little statistical difference in outcomes following rhinoplasty, demonstrating near equivalent results across all surgical techniques. Cross-study comparisons of these trials are difficult as variation in outcome reporting prevents statistical pooling and analysis. OBJECTIVE: To identify all outcomes and outcome measures used to evaluate postoperative results in rhinoplasty. METHODS: An extensive computerized database search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed; all trials involving n≥20 patients, aged 18 and older undergoing a primary, open rhinoplasty procedure, were included for review. RESULTS: Of the 3235 citations initially screened, 72 studies met the stated inclusion criteria. 53 unique outcomes and 55 postoperative outcome measures were identified. Outcomes were divided into 6 unique domains: objective signs, subjective symptom severity, physical function related to activities of daily living, patient satisfaction, surgeon satisfaction, and quality of life. Outcome measures identified consisted of 5 nasal specific, author-reported instruments; 5 nasal specific, patient-reported instruments; 5 patient-reported, generic instruments; and 40 author-generated instruments. Of the outcome measures identified, the Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE-Q), Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) and the FACE-Q were the only instruments to demonstrate adequate validity, reliability and responsiveness to change in patients undergoing a rhinoplasty procedure. CONCLUSION: There is heterogeneity in the outcomes and outcome measures used to assess post-surgical outcomes following rhinoplasty. A standardized core outcome set is urgently needed to make it possible for future investigators to compare results of various techniques in rhinoplasty surgery.
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