Involving stakeholders in informing the development of a Knowledge Translation (KT) intervention to improve the vaccination experience at school
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Objective: Pain, fear, and fainting management during school-based vaccinations is suboptimal. The objective was to examine stakeholder perceptions of barriers and facilitators to better practices. Method: Six semi-structured focus groups were conducted in Niagara Region, Ontario: two parent groups (n=7); one grade 7 to 8 student group (n=9); two nurse groups (n=12); and one school staff group (n=6). Participants shared perceptions about school vaccination clinics and the implementation of specific strategies and tools. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used as the framework for analysis. Results: Feedback from stakeholders was categorized into four domains of CFIR: intervention characteristics, inner setting, outer setting, and characteristics of individuals. Intervention characteristics included: vaccine educational materials, vaccination accommodations, distraction techniques, topical anaesthetics, and food. Inner setting factors included: school vaccination procedures, relationships between school staff and nurses, assessment and documentation of student fear, and factors that contribute to a chaotic vaccination clinic. Outer setting factors were: the social environment and addressing parent and student needs. Stakeholder roles were discussed in characteristics of individuals. Conclusion: This study identified elements that can facilitate and challenge pain and fear mitigation tools and strategies; these elements should be considered in the development of a Knowledge Translation (KT) intervention to improve the school vaccination experience.
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