It is well established that early life environmental signals, including nutrition, set the stage for long-term health and disease risk – effects that span multiple generations. This relationship begins early, in the periconceptional period and extends into embryonic, fetal and early infant phases of life. Now known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), this concept describes the adaptations that a developing organism makes in response to early life cues, resulting in adjustments in homeostatic systems that may prove maladaptive in postnatal life, leading to an increased risk of chronic disease and/or the inheritance of risk factors across generations. Reproductive maturation and function is similarly influenced by early life events. This should not be surprising, since primordial germ cells are established early in life and thus vulnerable to early life adversity. A multitude of ‘modifying’ cues inducing developmental adaptations have been identified that result in changes in reproductive development and impairments in reproductive function. Many types of nutritional challenges including caloric restriction, macronutrient excess and micronutrient insufficiencies have been shown to induce early life adaptations that produce long-term reproductive dysfunction. Many pathways have been suggested to underpin these associations, including epigenetic reprogramming of germ cells. While the mechanisms still remain to be fully investigated, it is clear that a lifecourse approach to understanding lifetime reproductive function is necessary. Furthermore, investigations of the impacts of early life adversity must be extended to include the paternal environment, especially in epidemiological and clinical studies of offspring reproductive function.