Clusterin knockdown using the antisense oligonucleotide OGX-011 re-sensitizes docetaxel-refractory prostate cancer PC-3 cells to chemotherapy
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OBJECTIVES: To characterize changes in secretory clusterin (sCLU) expression in prostate cancer cells after treatment with docetaxel and to determine whether sCLU knockdown can re-introduce chemosensitivity in a docetaxel-resistant, androgen-independent human prostate cancer model. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A tissue microarray was constructed for 84 radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens from a multicentre Phase II trial of neoadjuvant combined androgen ablation and docetaxel (CUOG-P01a) and assessed for changes in the expression of the cytoprotective chaperone sCLU. The human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 was repeatedly exposed to docetaxel chemotherapy in vitro, and a docetaxel-resistant cell subline (PC-3dR) was developed and analysed. RESULTS: sCLU levels were significantly higher in RP specimens treated with neoadjuvant combined androgen ablation and docetaxel than in untreated specimens. Similarly, sCLU expression increased 2.5-fold in the newly developed docetaxel-refractory PC-3dR cell line compared with parental PC-3 cells. There was a dose-dependent and sequence-specific decrease in sCLU levels in PC-3dR cells using OGX-011, an antisense oligonucleotide against human sCLU. OGX-011 and small-interference RNA both chemosensitized PC-3dR cells to docetaxel and mitoxantrone in vitro and apoptotic rates in PC-3dR cells were significantly increased when OGX-011 was combined with docetaxel. In vivo, growth of PC-3dR xenografts in nude mice was synergistically inhibited by OGX-011 combined with paclitaxel or mitoxantrone (by 76% and 44% compared with their mismatch controls, respectively). CONCLUSION: The present findings indicate that targeted knockdown of sCLU enhances the effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy in docetaxel-refractory cells, and provide preclinical proof of principle for clinical trials testing OGX-011 in second-line chemotherapy regimens for patients with docetaxel-refractory prostate cancer.