Psychological Manifestations and Chronic Pain in Whiplash-Associated Disorder Mechanisms: The Whole Pie, Please
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In the last decade, as the biopsychosocial model of patient health care has expanded, there has been an increased focus on the influence of psychological manifestations on patient symptoms and health-related outcomes. This Viewpoint explores the scientific underpinnings of psychological manifestations in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs)-where opinions vary widely concerning the reason for persistent symptoms and nonrecovery. It also provides an epidemiological and scientific foundation for the management of chronic WAD, incorporating the spectrum of the biopsychosocial model. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2019;49(3):118-121. doi:10.2519/jospt.2019.0603.
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