Different microvascular permeability responses elicited by the CXC chemokines MIP-2 and KC during leukocyte recruitment: Role of LSP1
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The CXC chemokines keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC, CXCL1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2, CXCL2) activate G-protein coupled receptor CXCR2 and are believed to have similar inflammatory effects in mice. Their specific signaling mechanisms remain elusive. A wide variety of cellular events, mediators and signaling pathways are known to regulate microvascular permeability. Leukocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1), a Ca2+- and F-actin binding protein, is one of the major downstream substrates of p38 MAPK. LSP1 was previously shown to play a pivotal role in leukocyte transmigration and microvascular permeability. Using intravital microscopy visualizing microvasculature of murine cremaster muscle, we demonstrate that KC and MIP-2 triggered increased leukocyte recruitment which was significantly reduced in LSP1-deficient mice compared to the wild-type control mice. Fluorescence imaging revealed that KC induced more substantial increases of microvascular permeability to FITC-labeled albumin than MIP-2. We found that LSP1 had a more prominent role in microvascular hyperpermeability induced by KC than that triggered by MIP-2. Moreover, Western blotting showed enhanced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the cremasteric tissue after stimulation with KC but not with MIP-2 and KC-induced but not MIP-2-induced hyperpermeability was blunted by pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK. In conclusion, LSP1 plays an important role in leukocyte recruitment induced by both KC and MIP-2. KC elicits more profoundly increased microvascular permeability than MIP-2. KC is at least partially effective through LSP1 and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK.
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