Nutritional Mobile Applications for CKD Patients: Systematic Review
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Introduction: Mobile health applications offer the potential to help people living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) manage diet-related challenges. This systematic review examined CKD dietary mobile app interventions; specifically, app characteristics, feasibility, and effectiveness in changing user behavior, as well as user satisfaction. Methods: This review was reported in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We searched scholarly databases, as well as the gray literature, for all randomized controlled trials, observational studies, needs assessments, and pilot testing/studies/trials focused on the development or evaluation of CKD dietary mobile app interventions. The characteristics, user satisfaction with, usability/feasibility, and effectiveness in changing dietary behavior of the mobile application were summarized using descriptive statistics and in a narrative manner. Results: Thirteen full-text studies were included, of which 11 were single center, with a mean sample size of 23. Of the 7 studies that measured usability/feasibility, all found at least some aspects of the application feasible/useful. Of the 5 studies that reported an evaluation of changes in behavior/diet related to self-management, all reported some positive change. Conclusion: According to current studies, nutritional apps show promise in CKD self-management.