Orthopaedic Trauma Care in Haiti: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of an Innovative Surgical Residency Program
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OBJECTIVE: In an effort to sustainably strengthen orthopaedic trauma care in Haiti, a 2-year Orthopaedic Trauma Care Specialist (OTCS) program for Haitian physicians has been developed. The program will provide focused training in orthopaedic trauma surgery and fracture care utilizing a train-the-trainer approach. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the program relative to its potential to decrease disability in the Haitian population. METHODS: Using established methodology originally outlined in the World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease project, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed for the OTCS program in Haiti. Costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted were estimated per fellow trained in the OTCS program by using a 20-year career time horizon. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to simultaneously test the joint uncertainty of the cost and averted DALY estimates. A willingness-to-pay threshold of $1200 per DALY averted, equal to the gross domestic product per capita in Haiti, was selected on the basis of World Health Organization's definition of highly cost-effective health interventions. RESULTS: The OTCS program results in an incremental cost of $1,542,544 ± $109,134 and 12,213 ± 2,983 DALYs averted per fellow trained. The cost-effectiveness ratio of $133.97 ± $34.71 per DALY averted is well below the threshold of $1200 per DALY averted. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis suggests that implementing the OTCS program is the economically preferred strategy with more than 95% probability at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $200 per DALY averted and across the entire range of potential variable inputs. CONCLUSIONS: The current economic analysis suggests the OTCS program to be a highly cost-effective intervention. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the conclusions remain stable even when considering the joint uncertainty of the cost and DALY estimates.
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