Occupational health problems of musicians.
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Musicians, as well as other performing artists, may have their careers interrupted by, interfered with, or terminated by occupational health problems involving the neuro-musculoskeletal system. Adverse working conditions, organization, and activity may affect the health of musicians in all age groups and at all levels of performing ability. Instrument-specific health problems are related to excessive force, static loading, repetitive movement, and duration of musical performance. Important risk factors are 1) change in technique or instrument; 2) intense preparation for a performance; 3) preparation of a new and difficult repertoire; and 4) prolonged periods of performance without rest. Treatment protocols and health promotion or disease prevention programs are being developed in collaboration with the performing arts community.
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