A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial evaluating the effect of intranasal insulin on cognition and mood in individuals with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder
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BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) is identified as a primary therapeutic target; no current treatment is approved for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in MDD. We examined whether intranasal insulin offered a beneficial effect across measures of cognitive function in adults with MDD. METHODS: Thirty-five adults (18-65 years of age: 47.09±9.89) meeting criteria for a major depressive episode as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV-Treatment Revised were included in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study. Subjects were not stratified based on baseline cognitive deficit. Subjects were randomized to 4 weeks of either intranasal insulin 40 International Units (IU) taken four times a day (i.e., morning, afternoon, evening, and before bed) (QID) (n=19) or placebo (n=16). RESULTS: No between group differences were observed in change from baseline on total Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score (25.98±2.81), in either of the Positive or Negative subscales of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), or on a global index of neurocognition. The possibility of practice and/or carry over effect could not be excluded. Methodological refinement (e.g., stratification of subjects based on baseline cognitive deficit) may have augmented assay sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Intranasal insulin did not demonstrate statistically significant improvements on overall mood, aspects of emotional processing, neurocognitive function, or self-reported quality of life patient reported outcomes.
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