Microvascular lining options for subtotal and total nasal reconstruction: A scoping review
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BACKGROUND: Restoration of nasal lining is essential in reconstruction of subtotal/total nasal defects. When local flaps are inadequate, a microvascular flap should be used. The purpose of this scoping review is to map the literature and identify the described flap options for subtotal/total nasal reconstruction. Further to that, we will summarize the stated advantages and disadvantages, evaluate functional and esthetic outcomes, and appraise the current body of literature. METHODS: An electronic literature search was completed. Studies required adult patients with subtotal/total nasal defects and lining reconstruction with microvascular free flap. Two independent reviewers completed screening and data extraction. Flap characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, functional and esthetic outcomes were reviewed. Two independent reviewers evaluated study quality. RESULTS: Of 305 initial articles, 22 studies were included (13 case reports, 9 case series) accounting for 65 flaps. Microvascular flaps varied by composition and anatomical location. For functional outcome, 13 studies used clinical exam by surgeon, 5 reported patient being satisfied, 3 studies used endoscopy, and 1 study used nasometry. Assessing esthetic outcome, 13 studies used clinical exam by surgeon, 5 studies reported patient being satisfied, 1 study used patient-reported outcome measures, and 16 studies included photos. Study quality (modified CARE and PROCESS checklists) was deemed poor. Quality of available evidence was level IV. CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular free flaps for nasal reconstruction, confer an overall satisfactory functional and esthetic outcome. All studies lack a systematic and comprehensive approach to assessing and reporting these outcomes. Future research should provide objective assessment and utilize patient reported outcome measures.
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