Determinants of temporal changes in galectin-3 level in the general population: Data of PREVEND
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BACKGROUND: High baseline galectin-3 levels are associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in the general population, but determinants of changes in galectin-3 levels over time have not been established. Therefore, we aimed to identify determinants of (temporal) change in galectin-3 levels. METHODS: Galectin-3 plasma levels were measured in a large community based cohort (PREVEND study) at 3 different time points: at baseline, after ~4 and ~9years. The association of baseline clinical and biochemical factors and (temporal) changes in galectin-3 level was assessed using multivariable mixed-effects regression modeling. RESULTS: In 4355 subjects, galectin-3 plasma levels were available at all time points (mean age: 48±12years; 50% female). Median galectin-3 level at baseline was 10.7 [8.9-12.7] ng/mL which gradually increased to 11.5 [9.4-14.3] ng/mL after ~9years. Using mixed-effects regression modeling, we first validated as independent determinants of baseline circulating galectin-3: eGFR (chi square (χ(2)):210.27, p<0.0001), gender (χ(2):43.85; p<0.0001), BMI (χ(2):19.68, p=0.0001), NT-proBNP (χ(2):18.76, p=0.0001) and serum (total) cholesterol (χ(2):8.63, p=0.01). Furthermore, we identified urinary albumin excretion (χ(2):34.03, p-value: <0.0001) and systolic blood pressure (χ(2):16.81, p=0.002) as independent determinants of temporal changes of galectin-3. CONCLUSIONS: In the general population, urinary albumin excretion >30mg/24h and systolic blood pressure >170mmHg were identified as significant determinants of dynamic increases in galectin-3 levels over time. These results implicate that treatment of high blood pressure might be effective to prevent increasing galectin-3 levels and its associated conditions.
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