The IFN-Independent Response to Virus Particle Entry Provides a First Line of Antiviral Defense That Is Independent of TLRs and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene I
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The innate immune system responds to pathogen infection by eliciting a nonspecific immune response following the recognition of various pathogen-associated molecular patterns. TLRs and the RNA helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 recognize foreign nucleic acid within endosomal and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively, initiating a signaling cascade that involves the induction of type I IFN through the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and NF-kappaB. However, a recent paradigm has emerged in which bacterial DNA and double-stranded B-form DNA trigger type I IFN production through an uncharacterized TLR- and RIG-I-independent pathway. We have previously described a response in primary fibroblasts wherein the entry of diverse RNA- and DNA-enveloped virus particles is sufficient to induce a subset of IFN-stimulated genes and a complete antiviral response in an IRF3-dependent, IFN-independent manner. In this study, we show that the innate immune response to virus particle entry is independent of both TLR and RIG-I pathways, confirming the existence of novel innate immune mechanisms that result in the activation of IRF3. Furthermore, we propose a model of innate antiviral immunity in which exposure to increasing numbers of virus particles elevates the complexity of the cellular response from an intracellular, IFN-independent response to one involving secretion of cytokines and activation of infiltrating immune cells.
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