Urinary tract calculi in children.
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One hundred and nine children with urinary tract calculi were reviewed and in some cases reinvestigated. Eighteen children had lower urinary tract calculi, which in all cases were associated with an underlying urodynamic abnormality. Sixty percent of 91 children with upper urinary tract calculi could be classified into 4 similarly sized etiological groups: an underlying urodynamic abnormality; urinary tract infection without a urodynamic abnormality; metabolic disorders; idiopathic hypercalciuria. An underlying abnormality was not found in 32% of cases. A painless presentation occurred in 39% of those with upper tract calculi. A family history of urinary calculi occurred in approximately one-half of children with either an idiopathic calculus or a calculus associated with cystinuria or idiopathic hypercalciuria. We conclude that urinary tract calculi, though rare in children, require extensive investigation to rule out urodynamic, infective and metabolic abnormalities. If such abnormalities are not found, the recurrence rate in the remainder is small and conservative treatment can usually be recommended.
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