Establishing the psychometric properties of 2 self-reported outcome measures of elbow pain and function: A systematic review
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STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. INTRODUCTION: The Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation (PREE) and the self-report section of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons-elbow form (pASES-e) are 2 patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) commonly used to assess pain and disability arising from elbow disorders. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To systematically review and summarize the quality and content of the evidence that is available on the psychometric properties of the PREE and pASES-e. METHODS: We systematically searched the online databases PubMed, EMBASE, ProQuest, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, UptoDate, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, and Google Scholar. Ninety-one articles were retrieved, and after screening, 9 were included in the final analysis. Data extraction and quality appraisal was performed by 2 independent raters. Descriptive synthesis of the reviewed studies was completed. RESULTS: Seven of the 9 studies had a quality score of 75% or higher. Agreement between the raters was good (kappa, 0.81). Both the PROMs did not demonstrate any floor and ceiling effects except for the satisfaction subscale of the pASES-e. Factor analysis revealed multidimensionality in the function subscale for both the PROMs. Construct validity was good with correlations above 0.70. Both were highly reliable with interclass correlation coefficient of >0.90. They were also highly responsive with an effect size and standardized response mean above 1. The minimal clinical important difference was not estimated for either measures. DISCUSSION: This study concluded that strong clinical measurement properties exist for both the PREE and the pASES-e. We identified gaps in the current evidence for both the ASES-e and the PREE. Future studies need to calculate clinically important estimates like MCID, SEM, and others; and provide clear and specific conclusions. CONCLUSION: The PREE and pASES-e have been established to be valid, reliable, and sensitive to change in both clinical and research settings based on high-quality evidence.
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