The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation prioritized to rigorously review the initial fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) during resuscitation of newborns.
This systematic review and meta-analysis provides the scientific summary of initial Fio2 in term and late preterm newborns (≥35 weeks’ gestation) who receive respiratory support at birth.
Medline, Embase, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched between January 1, 1980 and August 10, 2018.
Studies were selected by pairs of independent reviewers in 2 stages, with a Cohen’s κ of 0.8 and 1.0.
Pairs of independent reviewers extracted data, appraised risk of bias, and assessed Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation certainty of evidence.
Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 5 quasi RCTs included 2164 patients. Room air (Fio2 0.21) was associated with a statistically significant benefit in short-term mortality compared with 100% oxygen (Fio2 1.0) (7 RCTs; n = 1469; risk ratio [RR] = 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57 to 0.94). No significant differences were observed in neurodevelopmental impairment (2 RCTs; n = 360; RR = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.77 to 2.60) or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (5 RCTs; n = 1315; RR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.18).
The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation certainty of evidence was low for short-term mortality and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and very low for neurodevelopmental impairment.
Room air has a 27% relative reduction in short-term mortality compared with Fio2 1.0 for initiating neonatal resuscitation ≥35 weeks’ gestation.