Thrombosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Consequently, advances in antithrombotic therapy are needed to reduce the disease burden. This article focuses on 2 such advances. First, the prevention of atherothrombosis in patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease, which has been enhanced by the finding that the combination of low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin is superior to aspirin alone for prevention of recurrent ischemic events. However, this benefit comes at the cost of increased bleeding albeit not fatal bleeding. To overcome this problem, the second advance is the identification of factor XI as a target for new anticoagulants that are potentially safer than those currently available.