Gain‐of‐function variants in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene confer susceptibility to binge eating disorder in subjects with obesity: a systematic review and meta‐analysis
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The association between coding variants in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) and binge eating disorder (BED) in patients with obesity is controversial. Two independent reviewers systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science Core Collection and Google Scholar up to February 2018, using terms describing the MC4R gene and BED. Six of 103 identified references were included. Studies examined associations between at least one coding variant/mutation in MC4R and BED and screened for BED as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the Q-Genie tool, and overall quality of evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidance. Meta-analysis was conducted via logistic regression models. A positive association between gain-of-function (GOF) variants in the MC4R and BED was observed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.82, 5.04; p = 1.7 × 10-5 ), while no association was detected between loss-of-function (LOF) mutations and BED (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 0.73, 2.96; p = 0.25). Similar results were found after accounting for study quality (GOF variants: OR = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.76, 5.66; p = 1.1 × 10-4 ; LOF mutations: OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 0.73, 2.97; p = 0.25). Our systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that GOF variants as opposed to LOF mutations in MC4R are associated with BED in subjects with obesity.
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