Continuous Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Urology
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Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) for urinary tract infection prevention in children with vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, and hydroureteronephrosis is reviewed. A more selective use of CAP is advocated based on a review of known individual risk factors in each of these conditions that subsequently helps identify the children most likely to benefit from CAP. Both short-term and potential long-term side effects of CAP are reviewed, including the impact of prophylactic antibiotics on bacterial resistance and the microbiome. Alternatives to continuous antibiotic prophylaxis including Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry), probiotics, and vaccines are reviewed.
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