Chemical hardness: Temperature dependent definitions and reactivity principles Academic Article uri icon

  • Overview
  • Research
  • Identity
  • Additional Document Info
  • View All


  • In this brief report, we show that the three different chemical hardness definitions developed in the framework of the temperature-dependent density functional theory-namely, the electronic, the thermodynamic, and the Helmholtz hardnesses-imply both the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle and the maximum hardness (MH) principle. These hardnesses are identified as the second derivative of a thermodynamic state function and avoid the somewhat arbitrary approach, based on the parabolic interpolation of the energy versus electron number, that is normally used to justify these principles. This not only leads to a more mathematically sound justification of the HSAB and MH principles in the low-temperature limit but also establishes that the HSAB and the MH principles hold at any temperature of chemical relevance.


  • Miranda-Quintana, Ramón Alain
  • Franco-Pérez, Marco
  • Gázquez, José L
  • Ayers, Paul
  • Vela, Alberto

publication date

  • September 28, 2018