New developments in liquid-liquid extraction, surface modification and agglomerate-free processing of inorganic particles
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This review describes new methods for the particle extraction through liquid-liquid interface (PELLI). The discovery of new surface modification techniques, advanced extractors and new adsorption mechanisms enabled novel applications of PELLI in nanotechnology of metals, quantum dots, oxides and hydroxides. Colloidal and interface chemistry of PELLI is emerging as a new area of technological and scientific interest. The progress achieved in the understanding of particle behavior and interactions at the liquid-liquid interface, phase transfer and interface reactions allowed for the development of new extraction mechanisms. An important breakthrough was the development of surface modification techniques for extraction of functional oxides. Especially important is the possibility of particle transfer from the synthesis medium to the device processing medium, which facilitates agglomerate-free processing of functional nanoparticles. Multifunctional extractor molecules were discovered and used as capping and reducing agents for particle synthesis or dispersing and charging agents for colloidal processing. The progress achieved in the development of extractors and extraction mechanisms has driven the advances in the surface modification and functionalization of materials. New PELLI techniques were used for the development of advanced materials and devices for optical, photovoltaic, energy storage, electronic, biomedical, sensor and other applications.
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