Transformational leadership (TL) enhances follower Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) as mediated by leader‐member exchange (LMX). However, the strength of the positive associations among TL, LMX and OCB is subject to significant variability. Accordingly, we draw on several theories (self‐identity, role congruency, self‐concept, and social exchange) to propose that followers' gender moderates the relationships between all three of these variables. We argue differences in societal expectations and/or underlying motivation combine to make leadership of lesser importance to OCB among females than males. Using 202 supervisor‐subordinate dyads from Taiwan, a moderated mediation model of TL‐LMX‐OCB, with subordinate gender as a moderator, was tested. As hypothesised, each of the positive associations among TL, LMX and OCB were weaker for females than for males, thus accounting for some of the variability in the strength of the associations typically observed. Relatedly, although LMX fully mediated the TL‐OCB relationship in the entire sample, this effect was not observed among female subordinates. Further research is required to assess the degree to which these findings apply beyond the Confucian Asian societal cluster.