The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the possible direct toxic effect of alloxan on the Ca2+ handling by microsomal membranes isolated from rat mesenteric arteries. It was found that preincubation of the vascular muscle microsomal membranes with alloxan had a suppressive effect on both binding of Ca2+ (in the absence of ATP) and ATP-supported Ca2+ transport. Such an inhibition was time, dose, pH, and temperature dependent. ATP-surpported Ca2+ transport was more susceptible to the inhibitory action of alloxan than Ca2+ binding. Unlike alloxan, another commonly used diabetogenic drug, streptozotocin, was not effective in causing such an in vitro inhibition of Ca2+ handling.