Human milk feeding in premature infants: Protein,fat, and carbohydrate balances in the first two weeks of life
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The nutritional adequacy of the premature infant's own mother's milk was assessed during the first two weeks of life. Studies were carried out in three groups (n = 8) of infants of less than 1,300 gm birth weight, matched for gestational age and weight, and fed either pooled breast milk, their mothers own milk, or infant formula (SMA20 or SMA24). Macronutrient balances at the end of the first and second postnatal weeks demonstrated differences in nitrogen and lipid absorption and retention between groups. Nitrogen retentions (mg/kg/day) were similar to normal fetal accretion rates only in the PT and SMA24 groups. Fat absorption was poorest from the heat-sterilized PBM (average of 64.0% of intake) when compared to PT (88.2%) and SMA groups (83.3%). Average gross and metabolizable energy intakes were similar among groups. Nutritional status as measured by plasma total protein and albumin concentrations and weight gain tended to be poorest in the PBM-fed infants. It was concluded that either PT milk or infant formula of a composition similar to SMA24 are more appropriate than pooled banked milk for feeding the premature infant during the first two weeks of life.