Cardiovascular disease and related risk factors in adults with cerebral palsy: a systematic review
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AIM: To summarize the literature on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), risk factors of CVD, and CVD-related mortality in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: A systematic review was conducted by searching the PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE (Ovid), Cochrane, and CINAHL databases. Selection criteria included adults with CP aged 18 years or over. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies. Data were reported descriptively. RESULTS: Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Only one study reported directly on the presence of CVD in adults with CP, which found adults with CP reported greater CVD conditions than adults without CP (15.1 vs 9.1%, p<0.001). The most commonly reported risk factor of CVD in adults with CP was overweight/obesity. Five studies included data on CVD-related mortality in persons with CP, where CVD-related and circulatory system-related deaths were elevated and more common at a younger age in adults with CP than in the general population. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of CVD and the risk of death because of CVD in this population seems increased, though the knowledge base is fragmented by studies that are small in size and geographically isolated. Further research is required to understand prevalence of risk factors among adults with CP, in particular overweight/obesity. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Overweight and obesity are risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) that are commonly reported in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). CVD-related and circulatory system-related deaths are elevated in individuals with CP compared to the general population.
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