Musculoskeletal health in newly diagnosed children with Crohn’s disease
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We evaluated the impact of Crohn's disease on muscle and bone strength, mass, density, and geometry in children with newly diagnosed CD and found profound muscle and bone deficits; nevertheless, the prevalence of vertebral fractures at this time point was low. INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract that can affect the musculoskeletal system. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of vertebral fractures and the impact of CD on muscle and bone mass, strength, density, and geometry in children with newly diagnosed CD. METHODS: Seventy-three children (26 girls) aged 7.0 to 17.7 years were examined within 35 days following CD diagnosis by lateral spine radiograph for vertebral fractures and by jumping mechanography for muscle strength. Bone and muscle mass, density, and geometry were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). RESULTS: Disease activity was moderate to severe in 66 (90%) patients. Mean height (Z-score -0.3, standard deviation (SD) 1.1, p = 0.02), weight (Z-score -0.8, SD 1.3, p < 0.01), body mass index (Z-score -1.0, SD 1.3, p < 0.01), lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (BMD; Z-score -1.1, SD 1.0, p < 0.01), total body bone mineral content (Z-score -1.5, SD 1.0, p < 0.01), and total body lean mass (Z-score -2.5, SD 1.1, p < 0.01) were all low for age and gender. pQCT showed reduced trabecular volumetric BMD at the tibial metaphysis, expansion of the bone marrow cavity and thin cortices at the diaphysis, and low calf muscle cross-sectional area. Jumping mechanography demonstrated low muscle power. Only one patient had a vertebral fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Children with newly diagnosed CD have profound muscle and bone deficits; nevertheless, the prevalence of vertebral fractures at this time point was low.
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