Improving MR image quality in the presence of motion by using rephasing gradients
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Numerous techniques exist for suppressing ghosting artifacts due to respiratory motion on MR images. Although such methods can remove coherent ghosting artifacts, motion during gradient pulses also leads to poor image quality. This is due to phase variations at the echo caused by changes in velocity from one phase-encoding view to the next. The effect becomes severe for long sampling times and long TE values and can lead to low estimates of T2. We discuss general, robust modifications of the standard gradient or spin-echo sequences by using rephasing gradients that force the phase of constant-velocity moving spins to be zero at the echo. These sequences lead to a significant reduction in motion artifacts and hence improvement in image quality. They can be applied to multislice, multiecho, water/fat, and gating schemes as well. Since motion problems are universal, it would appear that these modified sequences should come into common usage for MR imaging.
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