Finite Element Method Simulation of Large Ice Mass Flow Behaviour
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The use of explicit and implicit finite element methods to simulate the flow behaviour of ice masses is described. Basal sliding and discontinuities are represented by soft elements and joint elements, respectively. Steady-state flow studies of the Barnes Ice Cap have resulted in a number of refinements to the simulation approach such as large deformations, transient thermal conditions, and functional flow relationships. Other work is in progress to simulate realistically glacier flow features such as surging.