Computational simulation of simultaneous cortical and trabecular bone change in human proximal femur during bone remodeling
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In this study, we developed a numerical framework that computationally determines simultaneous and interactive structural changes of cortical and trabecular bone types during bone remodeling, and we investigated the structural correlation between the two bone types in human proximal femur. We implemented a surface remodeling technique that performs bone remodeling in the exterior layer of the cortical bone while keeping its interior area unchanged. A micro-finite element (microFE) model was constructed that represents the entire cortical bone and full trabecular architecture in human proximal femur. This study simulated and compared the bone adaptation processes of two different structures: (1) femoral bone that has normal cortical bone shape and (2) perturbed femoral bone that has an artificial bone lump in the inferomedial cortex. Using the proposed numerical method in conjunction with design space optimization, we successfully obtained numerical results that resemble actual human proximal femur. The results revealed that actual cortical bone, as well as the trabecular bone, in human proximal femur has structurally optimal shapes, and it was also shown that a bone abnormality that has little contribution to bone structural integrity tends to disappear. This study also quantitatively determined the structural contribution of each bone: when the trabecular adaptation was complete, the trabecular bone supported 54% of the total load in the human proximal femur while the cortical bone carried 46%.
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