Optimization, Standardization, and Testing of a New NMR Method for the Determination of Zeolite Host−Organic Guest Crystal Structures
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An optimized and automated protocol for determining the location of guest sorbate molecules in highly siliceous zeolites from (29)Si INADEQUATE and (1)H/(29)Si cross polarization (CP) magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments is described. With the peaks in the (29)Si MAS NMR spectrum assigned to the unique Si sites in the zeolite framework by a 2D (29)Si INADEQUATE experiment, the location of the sorbate molecule is found by systematically searching for sorbate locations for which the measured rates of (1)H/(29)Si cross polarization of the different Si sites correlate linearly with (1)H/(29)Si second moments calculated from H-Si distances. Due to the (1)H/(29)Si cross polarization being in the "slow CP regime" for many zeolite-sorbate complexes, it is proposed that the CP rate constants are best measured by (1)H/(29)Si cross polarization drain experiments, if possible, to avoid complications that may arise from fast (1)H and (29)Si T(1)rho relaxations. An algorithm for determining the sorbate molecule location is described in detail. A number of ways to effectively summarize and display the large number of solutions which typically result from a prediction of the structure from the CP MAS NMR data are presented, including estimates of the errors involved in the structure determinations. As a working example throughout this paper, the structure of the low loaded p-dichlorobenzene/ZSM-5 complex is determined under different conditions from solid-state (1)H/(29)Si CP MAS NMR data, and the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with the known single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure. This structure determination approach is shown to be quite insensitive to the use of relative rate constants rather than absolute values, to the detailed structure of the zeolite framework, and relatively insensitive to temperature and motions.
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