The United Nations’ One Health initiative advocates the collaboration of multiple sectors within the global and local health authorities toward the goal of better public health management outcomes. The emerging global health threat posed by Aspergillus species is an example of a management challenge that would benefit from the One Health approach. In this paper, we explore the potential role of molecular epidemiology in Aspergillus threat management and strengthening of the One Health initiative. Effective management of Aspergillus at a public health level requires the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic tools to not only identify the infecting pathogen to species level, but also to the level of individual genotype, including drug susceptibility patterns. While a variety of molecular methods have been developed for Aspergillus diagnosis, their use at below-species level in clinical settings has been very limited, especially in resource-poor countries and regions. Here we provide a framework for Aspergillus threat management and describe how molecular epidemiology and experimental evolution methods could be used for predicting resistance through drug exposure. Our analyses highlight the need for standardization of loci and methods used for molecular diagnostics, and surveillance across Aspergillus species and geographic regions. Such standardization will enable comparisons at national and global levels and through the One Health approach, strengthen Aspergillus threat management efforts.