Chronic kidney disease stage affects small, dense low-density lipoprotein but not glycated low-density lipoprotein in younger chronic kidney disease patients: a cross-sectional study
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Background: Small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) and glycated LDL (g-LDL) have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients >60 years of age. Since young adult and paediatric patients have shorter exposure to Framingham-type risk factors, our study aims to determine whether younger CKD patients exhibit the same sd-LDL and g-LDL pattern. Methods: After ethics board approval, this cross-sectional study was conducted at two universities with 44 patients (mean ± standard deviation age 12.6 ± 4.9, range 2-24 years) with CKD stage of 1-5. Laboratory parameters studied were Cystatin C (CysC), CysC estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (calculated from the Filler formula), sd-LDL, g-LDL and albumin. Lipid samples were measured for sd-LDL and g-LDL using ELISA. Non-linear correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between g-LDL, sd-LDL and eGFR. Clinical Trials Registration is at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02126293, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02126293. Results: Triglycerides, but not total cholesterol and calculated LDL, were associated with CKD stages (ANOVA P = 0.0091). As in adults, sd-LDL was significantly associated with CKD stages (ANOVA P = 0.0133), CysC eGFR (r = -0.6495, P < 0.00001), and body mass index (r = -0.3895, P = 0.0189), but not with age. By contrast, there was no significant correlation between g-LDL and CKD stages or CysC eGFR (P = 0.9678). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that only triglycerides and sd-LDL were associated with CKD stages in this young cohort without confounding Framingham-type CVD risk factors. While larger studies are needed, this study suggests that lowering sd-LDL levels may be a potential target to ameliorate the long-term CVD risks in paediatric CKD patients.