Statins and Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury with Coronary Angiography
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BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is an adverse outcome resulting from radiocontrast medium exposure during coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to retrieve studies that investigated the impact of statin exposure before coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention on the development of contrast-induced acute kidney injury. The primary outcome was the development of contrast-induced acute kidney injury. We separately analyzed statin/placebo comparisons and high-/low-dose statin comparisons. RESULTS: Fifteen randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria: 11 studies with statin-naïve subjects, 2 studies with chronic statin users, and 2 studies with unspecified prior statin exposure. Statin exposure reduced the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury relative to placebo (relative risk [RR] 0.63, P = .01) with a nonsignificant reduction in the need for hemodialysis (RR 0.25, P = .08). This benefit was also observed in high-dose versus low-dose statin trials (RR 0.46, P = .004), in statin-naïve patients (RR 0.53, P <.0001), and with all studied statins. Higher statin exposure reduced contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with acute coronary syndromes compared with placebo or low-dose statins (RR 0.49, P <.00001), with no significant benefit among patients undergoing elective procedures (RR 0.86, P = .50). Subgroup analyses confirmed the benefit of statins in patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, and those receiving >140 mL of contrast dye. CONCLUSION: Statin therapy is effective at reducing the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury. It should thus be considered, at least on a short-term basis, for patients at increased risk of this complication.
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