Efficient UV repair requires disengagement of the CSB winged helix domain from the CSB ATPase domain
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The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler CSB is implicated in a variety of different DNA repair mechanisms, including transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), base excision repair and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. However, how CSB is regulated in these various repair processes is not well understood. Here we report that the first 30 amino acids of CSB along with two phosphorylation events on S10 and S158, previously reported to be required for CSB function in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair, are dispensable for repairing UV-induced DNA damage, suggesting that the regulation of CSB in these two types of repair are carried out by distinct mechanisms. In addition, we show that although the central ATPase domain of CSB is engaged in interactions with both the N- and C-terminal regions, these interactions are disrupted following UV-induced DNA damage. The UV-induced disengagement of the C-terminal region of CSB from the ATPase domain requires two conserved amino acids W1486 and L1488, which are thought to contribute to the hydrophobic core formation of the winged helix domain (WHD) at its C-terminus. Failure to undergo UV-induced dissociation of the C-terminal region of CSB from the ATPase domain is associated with impairment in its UV-induced chromatin association, its UV-induced post-translational modification as well as cell survival. Collectively, these findings suggest that UV-induced dissociation of CSB domain interactions is a necessary step in repairing UV-induced DNA damage and that the WHD of CSB plays a key role in this dissociation.
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