Contemporary Outcomes of Infants with Gastroschisis in North America: A Multicenter Cohort Study
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OBJECTIVE: To quantify outcomes and analyze factors predictive of morbidity and mortality in infants with gastroschisis. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical data regarding neonates with gastroschisis born between 2009 and 2014 were prospectively collected at 175 North American centers. Multivariate regression was used to assess risk factors for mortality and length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: Gastroschisis was diagnosed in 4420 neonates with median birth weight 2410 g (IQR 2105-2747). Survival (discharge home or alive in hospital at 1 year) was 97.8% with a 37 day median LOS (IQR 27-59). Sepsis, defined by positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture, was the only significant independent predictor of mortality (P = .04). Significant independent determinants of LOS and the percentage of neonates affected were as follows: bowel resection (9.8%, P < .0001), sepsis (8.6%, P < .0001), presence of other congenital anomalies (7.6%, including 5.8% with intestinal atresias, P < .0001), necrotizing enterocolitis (4.5%, P < .0001), and small for gestational age (37.3%, P = .0006). Abdominal surgery in addition to gastroschisis repair occurred in 22.3%, with 6.4% receiving gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes and 6.3% requiring ostomy creation. At discharge, 57.0% were less than the 10th percentile weight for age. The mode of delivery (52.4% cesarean delivery) was not associated with any differences in outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although neonates with gastroschisis have excellent overall survival they remain at risk for death from sepsis, prolonged hospitalization, multiple abdominal operations, and malnutrition at discharge. Outcomes appear unaffected by the use of cesarean delivery. Further opportunities for quality improvement include sepsis prevention and enhanced nutritional support.
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