Growth morbidity in extremely low birth weight survivors of necrotizing enterocolitis at discharge and two-year follow-up
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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine postnatal growth outcomes and predictors of growth failure at 18-24months corrected age among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) compared to survivors without NEC. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on ELBW (22-27weeks gestation or 401-1000g birth weight) infants born 2000-2013 at 46 centers participating in the Vermont Oxford Network follow-up project. Severe growth failure was defined as <3rd percentile weight-for-age. RESULTS: There were 9171 evaluated infants without NEC, 416 with medical NEC, and 462 with surgical NEC. Rates of severe growth failure at discharge were higher among infants with medical NEC (56%) and surgical NEC (61%), compared to those without NEC (36%). At 18-24months follow-up, rates of severe growth failure decreased and were similar between without NEC (24%), medical NEC (24%), and surgical NEC (28%). On multivariable analysis, small for gestational age, chronic lung disease, severe intraventricular hemorrhage or cystic periventricular leukomalacia, severe growth failure at discharge, and postdischarge tube feeding predicted <3rd percentile weight-for-age at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW survivors of NEC have higher rates of severe growth failure at discharge. While NEC is not associated with severe growth failure at follow-up, one quarter of ELBW infants have severe growth failure at 18-24months. TYPE OF STUDY: Prognosis study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.
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